Gravitationswellen nach 10 Millionen Jahren

Gravitationswellen die nach der Kollision zweier Galaxien auftreten, entstehen früher als bislang angenommen. Demnach löst die Verschmelzung der im Zentrum der Galaxien liegenden Schwarzen Löcher die Gravitationswellen bereits nach zehn Millionen Jahren aus und somit hundert Mal schneller als angenommen. Einem internationalen Forscherteam aus Astrophysikern, an dem auch Wissenschaftler der Universität Heidelberg beteiligt waren, ist die Berechnung mit Hilfe aufwendiger Computersimulationen gelungen. Über ein Jahr lang dauerten die Berechnungen an, die unter anderem in Heidelberg durchgeführt wurden. Die Supercomputer waren in der Lage, jene Zeit zu ermitteln, die die 100 Millionen Sonnenmassen schweren Schwarzen Löcher brauchen, um nach der Verschmelzung Gravitationswellen auszusenden. Entsprechende Ergebnisse wurden in der Fachzeitschrift „Astrophysical Journal“ publiziert. Der im Jahr 2011 bei Just promovierte Professor Fazeel Mahmood Khan, ist Erstautor des Forschungsprojekts und am Institute of Space Technology in Islamabad in Pakistan tätig. Das Team setzte sich aus Forschern der Universität Zürich, des Institute of Space Technology Islamabad und der Chinesischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zusammen. Jede Galaxie besitzt nach Erläuterungen des Heidelberger Astrophysikers Prof. Dr. Andreas Just ein supermassives Schwarzes Loch in ihrem Zentrum. Diese könne eine Masse von bis zu Millionen oder gar Milliarden Sonnen aufweisen. Die Simulation berücksichtigte auch die Beziehung zwischen den Umlaufbahnen der zentralen Schwarzen Löcher und der Art der Muttergalaxien. Die Berechnungen zur Verschmelzungsrate von supermassiven Schwarzen Löchern in der Frühzeit des Universums gewähren durch die verbesserte Simulation durch entsprechenden Berücksichtigungen sichere Prognosen.

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