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Neuronale Überlebensstrategie bei Tieren

Um in der freien Wildbahn zu überleben sind Tiere auf eine äußerst wichtige neuronale Fähigkeit angewiesen. Robert Gütig, vom Max Planck Institut für experimentelle Medizin, konnte anhand eines hierfür entworfenen Lernmodells, welches den selektiven Lernprozess veranschaulicht beweisen, dass das Gehirn der Tiere Zellaktivitäten ganz bestimmten Reizen zuordnen kann, in dem es sich nach der Häufigkeit der Eindrücke richtet. Da Tiere in ihrer natürlichen Umgebung verschiedensten Sinneseindrücken ausgesetzt sind und eine Vielzahl dieser Eindrücke nicht zwangsläufig eine bevorstehende Gefahr signalisieren, wurde lange gerätselt, wie die Überbrückung im Gehirn zwischen einem Hinweisreiz und dem eigentlichen Erlebnis geschieht. Hierzu hat Gütig ein Netzwerk aus Nervenzellen programmiert, das ähnlich wie ein Zellverband auf Erregungen reagiert. Sein Netzwerk war in der Lage, spezifische Hinweisreize die auf ein Ereignis hindeuten herauszufiltern. Der Lernprozess gestaltet sich in der gezielten Verstärkung und Abschwächung der Synapsen zwischen den virtuellen Nervenzellen. Die Nervenzellen konnten dabei ihre Aktivität in Abhängigkeit von Lernsignalen erhöhen oder absenken. Wird also ein Lernsignal durch bestimmte Ereignisse im Umfeld der Maus widerspiegelt, so lernen Nervenzellen auf die Reize die diese Ereignisse vorhersagen zu reagieren. „Dieses häufigkeitsbasierte Lernschema beruht auf der Idee, die Verbindungen zwischen Zellen so einzustellen, dass die resultierende neuronale Aktivität über einen Zeitraum gesehen proportional zur Häufigkeit der Hinweisreize wird“, erklärt Gütig. Diese Erkenntnisse könnten in Zukunft auch zur Entwicklung von Programmen zur Spracherkennung eingesetzt werden.

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