Verarbeitungsprozess im Gehirn steuert Kommunikationsstruktur

Die schnelle und zum Teil pausenlose sprachliche Interaktion zwischen sich unterhaltenden Menschen veranlasste Stephen Levinson vom Max-Planck-Institut für Psycholinguistik dazu, Forschungen in dieser Richtung zu analysieren. Die nahezu pausenlose Abfolge des wechselseitigen Sprachaustauschs liefert Hinweise auf eine mögliche Überlappung des Zuhörens und der Vorbereitung der darauf folgenden Antwort. Dieser Prozess ist deshalb besonders interessant, da die Vorbereitung zur sprachlichen Ausführung im Gehirn mit 600 Millisekunden mehr Zeit beansprucht, als die tatsächliche Geschwindigkeit in der sie im Gespräch als Antwort folgt, nämlich 200 Millisekunden. Und genau hier müsse es eine Überschneidung zwischen dem Zuhören und der Vorbereitung der Antwort geben. In dieser doppelten Beanspruchung des Verstehens und Produzierens wird eine Einflussnahme auf die Sprach- und Auffassungsstruktur auf beiden Seiten der Gesprächsbeteiligten vermutet. So könnte dieser Umstand Erklärungen dafür liefern, warum wir eine Aussage meistens in der kleinsten Einheit darstellen. Dies wiederum liefert eine passende Erklärung für unsere Interpretationsfähigkeit die wir schon aus wenigen Worten ableiten können.

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